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Cowden Japanese-Style Garden

Clackmannanshire

Summary

Dates

  • Date of Inclusion: 2013

Reason for Inclusion

Ella Christie's garden at Cowden was celebrated as an especially authentic and successful example of a Japanese-style garden in the West and remains known as such in modern scholarship. Although it does not survive intact, enough of its basic structure survives for it to hold its place among one of very few remaining sites of this kind and era in the UK.

Type of Site

A historic Japanese-style garden designed and maintained by Japanese practitioners Taki Handa and Professor Suzuki in the early 20th century for the explorer Isabella (Ella) Robertson Christie (1861-1949). It incorporates elements of three Japanese garden forms; a pond and island garden, a stroll garden and a tea-house garden. The garden was seriously vandalised in the 1960s and none of the built structures remain. However much of its essential form remains, including plantings, the plan and form and low-lying structures, including symbolic stones.

Main Phases of Landscape Development

1907-1930s

Designations

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Map of COWDEN JAPANESE-STYLE GARDEN

Importance of Site

A site included in the Inventory is assessed for its condition and integrity and for its level of importance. The criteria used are set out in Annex 5 of the Scottish Historic Environment Policy (December 2011). The principles are represented by the following value-based criteria and we have assigned a value for each on a scale ranging from outstanding value to no value. Criteria not applicable to a particular site have been omitted. All sites included in the Inventory are considered to be of national importance.

Work of Art

Outstanding

Cowden achieved fame in its early 20th-century heyday and attracted many visitors (Stewart, A 1955: 213-4). Although vandalised in the 1960s, its essential form endures. Cowden remains the only known example of the work of Taki Handa in the UK, and is also significant for the involvement of the London-based Japanese designer, Professor Suzuki.

Historical

Outstanding

Cowden is an exceptional representative of the Japanese-style garden tradition in the UK. The association with Ella Christie and Taki Handa is also historically significant as both were pioneering women in their respective fields. The history and physical development of the garden is charted by an excellent archival collection.

Horticultural, Arboricultural, Silvicultural

High

Christie amassed a varied horticultural collection which is still partly in evidence today. Some trees bear witness to pruning methods associated with the Japanese gardening tradition.

Architectural

Some

The original early 20th-century built garden structures were lost in the 1960s. Some value in this category derives from surviving parts of structures and ornaments and the remaining in-situ symbolic stones.

Scenic

Little

Local landform and shelter-belts mean that the garden is almost entirely secluded from the wider landscape. Views of the mixed tree-canopy may contribute a little scenic value to the wider landscape

Nature Conservation

High

The lake and other varied habitats at Cowden provide refuge for a range of birds, small mammals and invertebrates.

Archaeological

High

There is a high potential for an archaeological approach to help document and inform understanding of the surviving features of the garden landscape.

Location and Setting

Located 2.5km north east of Dollar, the Japanese-style garden is set within the undulating park and woodland grounds of the former Cowden Castle estate. This is a hilly, rural landscape situated at the northern fringes of the Middle Devon valley and characterised by improved grasslands, woodland plantations and small-scale settlement. The garden itself occupies a relatively low-lying area close to the Cowden estate boundary wall. It is centred on an artificial lake created from what was once a tract of waterlogged ground and is secluded around much of its perimeter by higher ground, shelter-belt plantations and the mature specimen trees and shrubs of the garden itself with the notable exception of an open and panoramic outlook to the west towards the Ochil Hills. The concept of shakkei or borrowed landscape is a common device in Japanese garden design, and this view is significant in how the garden was intended to be experienced. As part of the design composition, several old beech trees were cut in order to keep this vista open (Stewart, R. 1955: 2). The designation boundary for Cowden Japanese-style garden encompasses 2.7ha. (6.7ac.).

Site History

Cowden Japanese-style garden was the brainchild of explorer Ella Christie (1861-1949). She is known to historians as one of a handful of pioneering explorers who broke with traditional ideas about the role of women in the later 19th and early 20th century in order to mount ambitious and far-flung solo expeditions (Birkett 2004). Her early trips included Tibet, India and Burma in 1904-5, China, Korea and Japan in 1907 and Russian Turkestan in 1910 and 1912 where she was the first British woman to reach Khiva in modern Uzbekistan (Pimlott Baker 2004). In between expeditions, Christie transformed her home environment at Cowden Castle, evoking scenes from her travels by filling rooms with artefacts (Birkett 2004: 267). It was her journey to Japan, however, that inspired her most ambitious home project. Enchanted by the gardens, temples and flowers of Kyoto and Tokyo in the late spring of 1907, and having taken a nine hour walking tour around Mount Fuji, she settled on the idea of creating her own Japanese-style garden (Stewart 1955: 203-10).

The wider context for Ella Christie's personal interest was the end of Japan's self-imposed isolation in the mid-19th century and the ensuing vogue in the West for its art, culture and nature. Garden-making was a popular manifestation of this trend, fuelled by the sudden availability of exotic plants, bulbs and ornaments, the work of artists and writers, such as Josiah Conder, author of the influential 1893 Landscape Gardening in Japan, and the trend-setting example of early gardens like that at Gunnersbury House, Middlesex. By the time of Christie's trip east, the British cultural love-affair with Japan was approaching its height. Within the space of just six months in 1910, some eight million people visited the Japan-British Exhibition in White City, London with its gardens, tableaux and miniature landscapes (Ketchell et. al. 2011: 48).

Whereas most early 20th-century Japanese-style gardens in Britain were a pastiche or mismatch of elements (Raggett 2011), Cowden was distinguished from the start by the involvement of experienced Japanese garden designers who applied fundamental concepts of the design tradition to create a more convincing design. First of these was Taki Handa from Kyushu and another female pioneer in her field. While still in Japan, Christie had been advised by Josiah Conder to source 'English speaking experts' (Tachibana et.al. 2004: 379), and Handa certainly fitted this description having studied horticulture and botany both in Kyoto and in the UK (Raggett et. al. 2013). Commissioned by Christie in 1907 to establish the framework of the garden, Handa made a reconaissance trip in January 1908 to discuss the site and sketch the landscape. With a vision for the garden developing in her mind and on paper, she returned in the spring and again in the summer, spending a total of six weeks at Cowden shaping the ground, placing stones, and supervising a small Scottish workforce of three hired labourers (Christie 1940: 235; Raggett et. al. 2013, 12-15).

Japanese garden design is an ancient and complex discipline in which practitioners devise entire landscapes in microcosm. Scale, proportion and harmony are prioritised in order to compose highly refined views of nature, rich in meaning and symbolism. At Cowden, the overall layout was determined by these conventions. It was inspired partly by the 'ancient rule' of the Imperial Palace Gardens and partly by Josiah Conder's writing (Tachibana et al. 2004: 379). 'An absolute sense of proportion was observed from the very beginning', wrote Christie (1940: 235).

Carefully composed photographs taken in the years immediately afterwards show the bare bones of the new garden. There was the newly created lake itself, the main island accessed by wooden bridges, timber structures and symbolic stones, lanterns and small shrubs all set within an open, still treeless landscape. Paths and stepping stones marked out the route around the lake, punctuated by a thatched gateway on the south side of the lake, a Shinto shrine on the west, and a revolving summerhouse on the north. The garden was named Shah-rak-uen, meaning a place of pleasure or delight.

Christie then initiated what was to become an enduring professional relationship with a second key figure: Professor Jijo Soya Suzuki, Master of the Soami School of Imperial Design, who had forged a successful career in the UK from c.1910 onwards (Raggett 2008). Suzuki visited Cowden on occasion to advise on garden form, planting and architecture and to execute very specific pruning methods on the growing trees and shrubs. His surviving letters provide valuable insight into the philosophy behind the practical garden work at Cowden, and one of his most well-known modifications was to persuade Christie to remove one of the original bridges and create a new, zig-zag (yatsuhashi), bridge in its place (NLS Acc.5058).

Japanese-style gardens are well-known for requiring a lot of regular maintenance, and the third Japanese individual associated with Cowden was employed by Christie in order to provide continuous, on-site care. Recommended by Suzuki in 1925, Shinzaburo Matsuo lived and worked as gardener at Cowden until his death in 1937 where according to some accounts, he proved 'as great an attraction to visitors as the exotic plants' (Birkett 2004: 269). Matsuo was buried in the local churchyard at Muckhart, with a headstone provided by Ella Christie.

The combination of Christie's drive and vision together with the involvement of individuals familiar with the nuances of Japanese garden design meant that Cowden achieved some degree of fame in its hey-day as a particularly authentic Japanese-style garden. According to Professor Suzuki, it was, in fact, the best in the Western world (NLS Acc.5058).

By the 1930s, Ella Christie's travelling days were behind her, and the garden at Cowden became a much-loved focus, easily accessed from the house by a cherry-lined avenue. Friends and distinguished guests were entertained there and it formed the setting for regular family tea-parties during which Christie proved a vivid raconteuse (Stewart, A 1955: 213-4; Birkett 1989; Birkett 2004: 269). After her death in 1949, the gardens were opened on occasion to raise money for charity and a guide written by Ella Christie's nephew in 1955 provides a valuable snapshot of Shah-rak-uen at this time: It was a visually striking pond and island garden with a borrowed view of the Ochils, a stroll garden of intricate paths and stepping stones, and a tea-house garden, all complemented by an impressive range of mature flowering shrubs and trees (Stewart, R. 1955).

In the 1960s, Cowden Japanese-style garden was very seriously vandalised. Structures were burnt down or toppled and the destruction heralded a period of decline. At the time of writing (2013), however, the owners are considering new options for restoring the garden.

Landscape Components

The Gardens

The central focus of the entire composition is the long, artificial lake. By necessity, it was the first act of garden making in 1907 with work on drainage ditches and a secure embankment successfully transforming the formerly marshy field. The lake remains the organising feature for other core components of the garden, including the important 'Scattered' or 'Outlying' Isle. Located in the western half of the lake, it is now accessed by a modern timber bridge, and accommodates symbolic stones, flowering shrubs and stepping stones. The original bridge to this island from the north, and the zig-zag, (yatsuhashi) bridge from the south were destroyed in the 1960s along with the island's tea-house and nearby boathouse. A short distance to the west, meanwhile, are visible remains of the more ambiguous Galaxy Isle; a closely grouped composition of stones, while at the extreme western end of the lake are two smaller connected islands; the Master's Isle and Guest's Isle.

Japanese stroll gardens, which are typically associated with a water-body and intricate shore-line, involve a sequential progression through a series of overlapping views of the garden landscape, revealed as the participant moves along the path. At Cowden, this experience is facilitated by a main, lake-side path and a network of shorter paths and stepping stones. From the south and east, views of the Ochil summits act as shakkei, or borrowed landscape and is part of the total composition. Gateways or toriis (now lost) once marked significant thresholds along the way, including the transition into the more sheltered, 'sacred domain' at the western area of the garden articulated as such by more symbolic stones and the Shinto Shrine to Imari, (partial remains extant) (Christie 1940: 235). Also in evidence are parts of the late 18th and earlier 19th century Kasuga and snow-viewing stone lanterns, shipped in by Christie from Nara and Kyoto in 1908 (NLS Acc.5058). On the sloping ground north-west of the lake, (the Slopes of Fuji), vestiges of another path lead to the minimal remains of the former revolving summerhouse.

The careful positioning of highly charged, symbolic stones is an important and complex aspect of the Japanese garden tradition. Many such stones remain in situ at Cowden. Some will relate to the original work of Taki Handa in 1908 who, according to Christie, sourced and placed stones in their 'orthodox grouping' (Christie 1940: 225), while others are likely to relate to design advice from Professor Suzuki. Among the archive of his letters, for example, is a sketch of the zig-zag bridge and adjacent, named stones, with an accompanying instruction by Christie for labels to be made-up (NLS Acc.5058). Some of the stones at Cowden were behaviour-indicating and conveyed specific rituals normally associated with the Japanese tea-garden tradition. They include the Face-washing stone, the Shoe-removing stone, or the important Guest Honouring stone. Other known stones evoked grand themes or cosmology, like the Kwannon Stone (relating to a mountain deity) and five that represent the five virtues (patriotism, fidelity, loyalty to family life, faith and obedience to parents). Although beyond the remit of this report, it would be feasible to match many of the in situ stones in the garden with historical evidence for their allocated name and symbolism.

From the start, the hard, structural elements at Cowden were combined with a planting scheme of many different ornamental trees and shrubs, selected with reference to both the Japanese garden tradition and the limitations of the Clackmannanshire climate and soil. Some trees have now grown to be impressive specimens (such as a Corstorphine Maple in the western part of the garden), while others still bear physical traces of specialist pruning work undertaken many decades ago. Many original plants still thrive and contribute colour and texture to the overall garden composition. As with the stones, more in-depth work on-site would help document surviving species.

References

Maps, Plans and Archives

  • 1930-1 Ordnance survey Perthshire, 3rd edition OS 1:2500 (25')
  • NLS Acc.5058: The Stewart Christie Papers
  • 1930-1 Ordnance survey Perthshire, 3rd edition OS 1:2500 (25')
  • NLS Acc.5058: The Stewart Christie Papers

Sources

Printed Sources

  • ASH Consulting Group 1998, 'Clackmannanshire landscape character assessment', Scottish Natural Heritage Review No.96
  • Birkett, D. 1989, Eastern Promise, Scotland on Sunday
  • Birkett, D. 2004, Spinsters Abroad: Victorian lady explorers, Sutton Publishing Ltd: Thrupp, Stroud
  • Chrisite, E and A. Stewart, 1940, A Long Look at Life by two Victorians. London
  • Ketchell, R., J. Raggett and G. Hardman 2011, Visions of Paradise: the Japanese garden in the UK = Rakuen e no sh'kei, Japanese Garden Society
  • Kuitert, W. 2002, Themes in the History of Japanese Art, University of Hawai'i Press: Honolulu
  • Pimlott Baker, A. 2004, 'Christie, Isabella Robertson (1861-1949)' Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  • Raggett, Jill 2002, The Japanese-style Garden in the British Isles, 1850-1950, introduction, application and significance, Unpublished PhD thesis, University of York
  • Raggett, Jill 2006, 'Early Japanese-style gardens in Britain ' an overview', Shakkei, 13, 2, 6-9
  • Raggett, Jill 2008, 'Searching for Professor Suzuki, Garden Designer', Shakkei, 14, 3, 26-31
  • Raggett, Jill 2010, 'Shadowy Figures: Early Japanese Garden Designers in Britain and Ireland' in H. Cortazzi (ed.) Britain & Japan: Biographical Portraits Volume VII, The Japan Society
  • Raggett, Jill 2011, 'Gardens speaking with a Japanese accent: Early Japanese-style gardens in Britain', Shakkei, 17, 4, 4-6
  • Raggett, J., Kajihara-Nolan, Y., Nolan, J. 2013, 'Handa Taki (1871-1956) ' teacher, horticulturalist and garden designer', Chapter for Britain and Japan: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII, Japan Society. 332-350.
  • Stewart, A. 1955, 'Alicella': A Memoir of Alice King Stewart and Ella Christie, London: John Murray
  • Stewart, R. 1955, The Japanese Gardens at Cowden. Dollar: The Episcopal Church of St James
  • Tachibana, S., S. Daniels and C. Watkins, 2004, 'Japanese gardens in Edwardian Britain: landscape and transculturation', Journal of Historical Geography, 30, 364-94
  • Other
  • Stewart, R 2008: Recorded lecture (DVD): The Japanese Garden

Internet Sources

  • No information available.

Notes of Abbreviations used in References

NLS: National Library of Scotland

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