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Dunecht House

Aberdeenshire

Summary

Dates

  • Date of Inclusion: 1987

Reason for Inclusion

Established at the same time as Dunecht House was being built in 1820, this large designed landscape contains outstanding architectural features, parkland, woodland, formal and informal gardens and water features. Together, the whole composition makes a major contribution to the local scenery.

Type of Site

No information available.

Main Phases of Landscape Development

No information available.

Designations

  • Please visit our data website to download spatial datasets for GIS use, including shapefiles for Properties In Care, Listed Buildings, Scheduled Monuments and more.
  • For online maps that display designation information, please visit PASTMAP or Scotland's Environment
Map of DUNECHT HOUSE

Importance of Site

A site included in the Inventory is assessed for its condition and integrity and for its level of importance. The criteria used are set out in Annex 5 of the Scottish Historic Environment Policy (December 2011). The principles are represented by the following value-based criteria and we have assigned a value for each on a scale ranging from outstanding value to no value. Criteria not applicable to a particular site have been omitted. All sites included in the Inventory are considered to be of national importance.

Work of Art

Outstanding

The scale, size and quality of the design give Dunecht outstanding value as a Work of Art.

Historical

High

The work by the 19th and 20th century designers gives this site high Historical value.

Horticultural, Arboricultural, Silvicultural

High

The collection of conifers and the woodland gardens give Dunecht high Horticultural value.

Architectural

Outstanding

The designed landscape provides the setting for a listed category A building and is of outstanding Architectural value.

Scenic

Outstanding

The policy woodlands of Dunecht provide a major contribution to the surrounding scenery.

Nature Conservation

Some

The woodlands, water features and the low-lying bog/moss areas give this site some Nature Conservation value.

Location and Setting

Dunecht House is situated on the northern plain of the River Dee just to the south of the Corskie Burn which runs into the Loch of Skene. The site lies to the south of Dunecht village on the A944 some 12 miles (19.5km) west of Aberdeen. The policies are bordered to the north by the A944, to the west by the B977 and by minor roads to the south and east. The surrounding rolling landscape is a mix of agriculture and forestry. To the south-west, the Hill of Fare rises to a height of 1,237' (406m). There is a long view south across the Leuchars Moss to the Durris Forest 1,152' (378m) high. The woodland shelterbelts on the boundaries of Dunecht provide considerable scenic interest from the surrounding roads. Dunecht is an extremely large designed landscape which has been skilfully integrated into the landscape. The Skene Lodges which stand on the edge of the Loch of Skene at the eastern edge of the designed landscape and the tall North Lodge gates provide considerable scenic interest from the A944.

Dunecht House stands within some 1700 acres (688ha) of designed landscape which extends north to the village of Dunecht, south to Tillymannoch Wood, west to the B977 and east to the Loch of Skene. Documentary evidence of the development of the designed landscape is provided by the 1st edition OS of c.1860 and the 2nd edition OS of c.1900. Comparison of these maps indicates that the designed landscape laid out in the 19th century had a similar extent to the present, except to the east side where it extended only as far as the woodland on Heather Hill. In the early years of the 1900s a new east drive was made as far as Loch Skene and the natural landscape between Heather Hill and Loch Skene thus became incorporated within the policies.

Site History

The present designed landscape was established in association with Dunecht House which was built in c.1820. The park and policies were extended under the improvements carried out by G. Bennet Mitchell between 1900-1907. The terraces were laid out by Sir Aston Webb 1912-30 and the gardens were extended at that time.

In 1820 a 'Grecian edifice' was built on the site of the present house and in 1845 the property was bought by Lord Lindsay, later the 25th Earl of Crawford and the 8th Earl of Balcarres, with the proceeds of his family's wealth from Lancashire coal. By 1859 the house was extended by John & William Smith and in 1867 he commissioned George Edmund Street to add a vast chapel and huge library; both were built in the 'Lombardic' style. Lord Crawford died in 1881 and all work stopped.

In 1900, the estate was sold by his son to A.C. Pirie of Craibstone who employed G. Bennet Mitchell to undertake an extensive scheme of 'estate improvements'. He built the village of Dunecht, changing its name from Waterton. In 1907, the lst Viscount Cowdray rented the estate and finally purchased it in 1909. Following World War I, Lord Cowdray embarked on a series of alterations including the building of the terraces to the south of the house. A disastrous gale hit the estate in 1953 and a large amount of timber was lost. Under the ownership of the Cowdray family, planting has continued in the gardens, particularly during the 1950s, and throughout the policies.

Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Dunecht House is listed category A and was originally built by John Smith in 1820 in Neo Greek Style. His son, William, made Italianate additions on the south side of the present courtyard in 1859. George Edmund Street altered the facade and added the chapel and library between 1872-77 in French-Italian Romanesque. Further additions were built by G. Bennet Mitchell in 1900 and his conservatory was removed by Sir Aston Webb during the alterations between 1912- 1920. The most recent work was undertaken by Dr William Kelly between 1924-25. The original portico has been erected south of the Loch of Skene as a temple.

The Garages and Flats (formerly the Stable-Block), Dunecht Lodge, and South Lodge (gates by William Smith 1859) are listed category B and are thought to have been built by John Smith c.1820. The Engineer's House is listed category B and is early 19th century. The West and North Lodges are listed category B and are by Aston Webb c.1912. Denwell Cottage is by G. Bennet Mitchell c.1900. The Skene Lodges are twin tower lodges which stand on the banks of Loch Skene. They were designed by Dr Alexander Marshall MacKenzie in 1922. Associated with them is the boat-house. The Main Gates are listed category B and were designed by Dr. William Kelly in 1924-5.

The Home Farm (the Dairy) is thought to date from the early 18th century although it has been much remodelled. The Doocot, now unroofed, and Kennels Cottage are both mid-19th century probably by William Smith. The remains of the mansion of Housedale and the adjacent Walled Garden are listed category C(S). A doorway, dated 1705, is incorporated in the remains of the house. A nearby two-storey outbuilding is dated 1723. John Smith built the West Gate of the Walled Garden c.1820. Walker and Duncan built the Gardener's Cottage in 1912.

The Terrace by Aston Webb was constructed between 1912-30. The Gazebo is listed category B and is by Aston Webb c.1913. The Statuary includes the Sphinxes (c.1800), the Urns, and the Swan Fountains which are all listed category B. Two Bronze Groups are listed category C and are by Lilian Wade, 1916.

There are several more buildings within the policies and these include other Lodges, the Laundry and farm buildings.

Parkland

The present park was established c.1820 and enlarged in the late 19th and early c.20th. century. It was planted by Lord Lindsay and was enlarged and 'improved' by G. Bennet Mitchell for Mr Pirie. The undulating parkland surrounds the house on three sides; several sweeping drives intersect throughout the park. Their curving lines accentuate the small hillocks and break up the wide expanse of the area. Dunecht Loch is the main feature of the park to the south east of the house. An avenue, planted to commemorate the Coronation of 1953, lines the drive between the house and the walled garden. There are several other avenues of mixed conifers including Abies veitchii, Picea glehnii, Pinus cembra and others. Specimen trees, particularly beech, oak, Wellingtonias, spruce and firs in the southern park frame the views to the loch and the hills beyond. Several trees were lost in the gale in 1953. The southern section has been converted into a golf course, run by a local club. The fairways and greens have broken up the visual effect of the parkland although recent planting has been based on the sites of original park clumps only.

Woodland

Woodland plantations surround the park and there were extensive plantations on Heather Hill and Tillymannoch Wood. Much timber was lost in the gale in 1953 and replanting has continued ever since. The majority of the woodlands are coniferous: Sitka, Douglas fir and some larch grown for a commercial crop. The smaller plantations to the west and east of the house are the remnants of earlier plantings, c.1880 and c.1900, and are mainly planted with beech, oak, sycamore and some conifers including larch, Scots pine and Douglas fir. The same mix is used along the windswept shelterbelt bordering the A944, planted c.1900. Around the lodges at the Loch of Skene there are several old Scots pine which date certainly from the 18th century and some large horse chestnut dating from c.1900.

Woodland Garden

There are two distinct areas of the woodland garden: one near the house and the other along the southern side of Dunecht Loch. The lochside was planted up c.1930. Much of the original planting has been lost but there are still shrubs such as dogwood, Philadelphus and the remains of a line of cherries bordering the path. At the eastern end the loch edge is marked by one or two large, well-formed copper beech.

The woodland garden to the west of the house is planted under a mixed canopy dating from c.1880, c.1900, and c.1950. To the west, a Keyhole has been cut through the mainly beech woodland for a view to the southern Grampian hills. Grass paths meander through Rhododendrons and other exotic shrubs to small glades planted up with exotic specimens, particularly unusual maples such as Acer griseum and A. davidii, the latter grown for its bark colouring. There are also many different rowans and birches. Taller conifers border the glades, in particular Wellingtonias and Douglas fir; over 45 trees were measured by Alan Mitchell in 1983.

Water Features

The Loch of Skene is a large natural loch raised some 30' from the natural level in c.1920 to provide hydro-electric power. It lies on the eastern edge of the present designed landscape. The policies were extended to include the loch in the early 1900s when the new east drive was laid out. Dunecht Loch is a significant feature in the park to the south of the house. It was enlarged in the latter half of the 19th century. Waterton Loch is situated at the northern edge of the site near the North Lodges and the village of Dunecht. The original portico of Dunecht House has been re-erected at the south side of the loch as a Doric Temple.

The Gardens

Two large terraces were built adjacent to the house in c.1912 on the site of a formal garden indicated on the 1st edition OS map, one cut into the hill to the west and the other was built up from the park to the south; both were designed on the grand scale by Aston Webb. An attractive gazebo, two large lead fountains, and various imposing statues accent the layout which is linked by a series of low walls, smaller terraces, banks, paths and balustrades. Originally, the gardens were filled with box hedges and parterres ornamented by specimen conifers. These have been removed and the beds along either side of the south terrace are now colourful herbaceous borders restored two years ago and planted with late summer-flowering plants. The rose beds are edged with catmint and fuchsias. The western terrace is a simple lawn bordered by two long banks of heathers with larger banks of Ghent Azaleas above, leading to a cherry walk which is spectacular during the flowering season. The paths around the bank are raked and a mature beech of c.1820 stands on the lawn. The tennis court and summerhouse are situated near the Chapel.

Walled Garden

The former extensive kitchen garden is now used as a market garden and nursery, raising shrubs for the wholesale market. Some of the glasshouses still remain, though in a very poor state. The original layout has gone. The nursery has extended northwards into the orchard and the adjacent field, which is used for lining out.

References

Maps, Plans and Archives

  • No information available.

Sources

Printed Sources

  • Listings
  • The Architecture of the North East, Society of Architecture Historians of Great Britain
  • Gazetteer of Modern Farm Buildings
  • Sales Particulars, 1906
  • A. Mitchell, Tree Survey 1983
  • Groome's
  • NMRS, Photographs

Internet Sources

  • No information available.

Notes of Abbreviations used in References

No information available.

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