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Dirleton Castle

East Lothian

Summary

Dates

  • Date of Inclusion: 1987

Reason for Inclusion

A mainly 18th century designed landscape, with attractive modern herbaceous borders that provide the setting for the category A listed Dirleton Castle and doocot.

Type of Site

No information available.

Main Phases of Landscape Development

No information available.

Designations

  • Please visit our data website to download spatial datasets for GIS use, including shapefiles for Properties In Care, Listed Buildings, Scheduled Monuments and more.
  • For online maps that display designation information, please visit PASTMAP or Scotland's Environment
Map of DIRLETON CASTLE

Importance of Site

A site included in the Inventory is assessed for its condition and integrity and for its level of importance. The criteria used are set out in Annex 5 of the Scottish Historic Environment Policy (December 2011). The principles are represented by the following value-based criteria and we have assigned a value for each on a scale ranging from outstanding value to no value. Criteria not applicable to a particular site have been omitted. All sites included in the Inventory are considered to be of national importance.

Work of Art

Some

The attractive herbaceous borders, although modern, are of some value as a Work of Art.

Historical

Outstanding

The detailed available information of the personalities associated with Dirleton gives the site outstanding Historical value.

Horticultural, Arboricultural, Silvicultural

Little

The specimen trees and plant material in the gardens at Dirleton are of a little Horticultural value.

Architectural

Outstanding

Dirleton Castle and the Doocot are both listed category A and give the site outstanding Architectural value.

Scenic

High

Although the garden itself is entirely screened from view from the outside, Dirleton Castle, the garden walls, tower and doocot are of high Scenic value in the village.

Nature Conservation

None

There is no significant Nature Conservation value in the gardens of Dirleton.

Location and Setting

Dirleton Castle is situated on the east side of Dirleton village green. The south coast of the Firth of Forth lies approximately 1 mile (2km) to the north. The town of North Berwick is situated some 2 miles (3km) to the east whilst Edinburgh lies 20 miles (32km) to the west. The A198 forms the northern boundary of the designed landscape. The Castle stands on a rocky outcrop which was chosen for its strategic position overlooking the surrounding flat landscape. The immediate surrounding landscape is largely farmed although there are extensive areas of woodland to the north-west within the policies of Archerfield. From the high position of the Castle, views can be gained across the surrounding Lothians and north, beyond the Firth of Forth to Fife. The Castle, surrounding walls, Doocot and Garden Tower are moderately significant scenic features within the village of Dirleton.

The Castle stands overlooking some 11 acres (4.5ha) of designed landscape which is enclosed by walls on all sides, except to the east, where it is bordered by the drive to the Mains Farm which lies to the south-east of the Castle. Documentary evidence of the development of the designed landscape is confined mainly to 19th century sources; a survey of the Castle Garden and Lands of 1844 by John Mason, another survey by Thomas Dawson of 1860, the 1st edition OS map of c.1865 and the 2nd edition OS map of c.1900. Comparison of these maps shows that although the extent of designed landscape remained consistent throughout the 19th century, the extent of the other estate lands was reduced between 1844-60. The gardens associated with Dirleton today are confined within the boundary walls.

Site History

Three families have been responsible for the development of Dirleton since the first castle was built in the 12th century: the de Vaux, the Halyburtons and the Ruthvens.

In the early 12th century, the Barony of Dirleton, which at that time extended as far as the Firth of Forth, was acquired by William de Vaux. The castle which he constructed on the site is thought to have been built of timber. The first stone castle on the site is thought to have been built in the 13th century with stone from a quarry in the nearby village of Gullane. In 1298, the castle was attacked by troops of Edward I and occupied by them until 1311. During this period, some repairs and alterations are thought to have been carried out. When Scottish forces loyal to Robert the Bruce reclaimed the castle, some of the work carried out by the English was demolished. Dirleton was returned to the de Vaux family but, some time during the reign of David II (1329-71), the daughter and heiress of William de Vaux married John Halyburton, 2nd son of Sir Adam Halyburton of Halyburton. The estates then passed to the Halyburton family.

In 1363, the castle was seized by the Earl of Douglas during a revolt against David II. The Halyburtons regained control and considerable reconstruction work was carried out at the end of the 14th century and throughout the 15th century. The upper part of the earlier 13th century towers were formed whilst the curtain walls which linked them are thought to have been remodelled. A new gateway was formed in the south- east corner to replace an earlier drawbridge. James IV visited Dirleton in 1505 and is recorded as having given money to workmen employed on the construction of the rectangular enclosure at the north- east side of the castle.

The great grandson of John Halyburton who had married the de Vaux heiress was Lord High Treasurer and a hostage for the Ransom of James I (1406-1437). His son, John, was created Lord Halyburton of Dirleton. The 5th Lord Halyburton died in 1505. His daughter, Janet, married the 2nd Lord Ruthven, Provost of Perth, Extraordinary Lord of Session and Keeper of the Privy Seal.

Their son, Patrick, 3rd Lord Ruthven, was involved in the murder of Rizio at Holyrood in 1566. Patrick's son, William, who was also involved in the affair, became 4th Lord Ruthven on his father's death the same year. He was created Earl of Gowrie in 1581. Lord Gowrie was a keen arboriculturist and is thought to have planted many trees at Dirleton to ornament the gardens which he may well have laid out. He was responsible for the 'Raid of Ruthven' when James VI was held at Lord Gowrie's home, Ruthven Castle, Perthshire. Lord Gowrie and his associates had assumed power for less than a year when the King regained control. Lord Gowrie was eventually beheaded in 1585 following involvement in a plot to seize Stirling Castle.

Lady Dorothea Gowrie, his widow, gave up Dirleton and the King granted the lands to his adviser, the Earl of Arran. They were, however, returned to Lady Gowrie within the year. Misfortune returned to the family when two of her sons were hung for their part in the 'Gowrie Conspiracy'. Thereafter, Parliament ordered the family name to be wiped out and decreed that no successor should hold 'any office, honour or possessions'. Lady Dorothea's other two sons escaped to England, and Dirleton passed to Sir Thomas Erskine of Gogar. The Ruthvens had been responsible for considerable alterations to the interior of the castle and, despite the Parliamentary Order, Lady Gowrie was allowed to remain in residence at Dirleton.

In 1625 Sir Thomas Erskine was created Lord Dirleton, Viscount Fenton and Earl of Kellie. His son sold the lands of Dirleton to Sir James Douglas. He, in turn, sold to Alexander Morieson of Prestongrange who, in 1631, sold to James Maxwell, proprietor of the Innerwick estate, near Dunbar.

In 1646 Maxwell was created Earl of Dirleton and Lord Fenton of Eilbotle. In 1650 the castle was attacked by Cromwell's forces and used as a hospital for a short time. The castle was returned to the Countess of Dirleton, whose son sold it to Sir John Nisbet in 1663.

Sir John was responsible for the construction of a new house on the neighbouring estate of Archerfield. He died in 1687. Dirleton and the other Lothian estates were inherited by his cousin, William Nisbet, whose daughter Mary married the 7th Earl of Elgin. The estates passed through the female line, and their daughter, Lady Mary Nisbet Hamilton, married Robert Dundas, 6th son of Lord President Dundas of Arniston in 1828. By this time, Dirleton had become the flower garden of the designed landscape of Archerfield which was laid out around 1780 by Robert Robinson. An account of 1885 noted that the gardens were 'beautifully kept' and had many fine specimen trees. Even at that time, Dirleton was open to the public for one day per year. Their daughter, Mary, married Henry Nisbet Hamilton Ogilvy of Biel, Archerfield, Dirleton, Winton and Weilvale in 1888. After her death, Archerfield was sold but Dirleton remained in the Nisbet family ownership. It has been held in the care of the Secretary of State for Scotland for some 60 years and it is now owned by the National Trust for Scotland.

During this time, the herbaceous borders have been remodelled and other ornamental planting has been replaced but the Bowling Green and old trees remain as remnants of the earlier layout.

Landscape Components

Architectural Features

Dirleton Castle is a category A listed building and a scheduled monument. It dates from three main periods which can be detected from the remains. The 13th century building by the de Vaux family has free-stone ashlar masonwork. The doorways have pointed archheads. The windows also have pointed archheads and tall window slits. The late 14th & 15th century period of construction can be identified by the rubble masonwork, round-arched or square-headed doors and square-headed windows. The 16th century construction also has rubble masonwork although the individual stones are smaller and, in parts, material from the demolished 13th century phase has been re-used. The 16th century windows are square-headed, as are the doors although the larger entrances have semi- circular heads. The interior plan of the building has been surveyed and is well documented in the guidebook and the Royal Commission Inventory No.27. The Doocot, also listed category A, dates from the 16th century and is incorporated into the modern east boundary wall. It is beehive-type, circular on plan, and stands 25' high. The north boundary wall extends from the Doocot and terminates on the north-west corner at the Garden Tower, which is a round, two- storeyed, castellated building. The arched Gateway, which stands to the north-east of the Castle is a remnant of the barmkin wall which enclosed the Castle, gardens, stables and outbuildings. It was built during the Ruthven period (1505-1586) and is statutorily listed.

Woodland

A small deciduous wood, planted since 1900, is situated to the south-east of the Castle, between it and the Castle Mains. Reference to the 1st & 2nd edition OS maps indicates that it was the site of an earlier walled garden, a subsidiary of the main walled enclosure which at that time was the flower garden of Archerfield House. An enclosure in the south-west corner of the site, which was indicated as woodland on the 19th century OS maps, is now the site of the maintenance depot for the gardens and is separated from them by a mature beech hedge.

The Gardens

The gardens provide an attractive setting to the ruins of Dirleton Castle. Entry is gained through a gateway in the west wall, which is flanked by yew and holly hedges. The gateway opens out to a broad open lawn which is bordered by a sinuous bed of herbaceous plants and shrubs. Around the outer edge of the border is a footpath and beyond it, on the north and south sides of the lawn, are further borders. All the borders are separated from the footpath by low box hedging. They are well stocked with numerous colourful perennial plants with some shrubs to provide colour and interest outwith the main flowering period. Wisteria, Magnolia and other climbing plants clothe the interior of the northern boundary wall. The layout is most attractive. It was established some 60 years ago on the site of an earlier parterre. The layout of these 19th century parterres is shown in an account of 1865 (Journal of Horticulture &mp; Cottage Gardener, November 28th 1865). It describes the gardens surrounding the ruined castle at that time as 'some of the best examples of modern flower gardening, together with others of a style some two centuries old.' On the site of the present herbaceous borders was an area of informal flower beds linked by gravel walks. The boundary wall was clothed with roses, myrtles, Magnolias, Wisterias etc., some of which remain today. They flower beds themselves were stocked with varieties of Geranium, Lobelia, Verbena, Alyssum and Caleceolaria.

Another flower garden was sited along the western boundary wall. Its layout was more geometrical than the other garden but was stocked with similar plant material. It was ornamented by specimens of yew (Taxus baccata), cedar (Cedrus deodora), Monkey puzzle (Araucaria araucana) and Lawsons cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana).

Other parts of the garden appear to have had a similar form to that which remains today. From the present herbaceous borders, the footpath climbs eastwards towards the Doocot. It crosses lawns, ornamented by specimen trees, and continues past the rocky outcrop on which the castle stands. Specimen trees have also been planted on the lawn which extends down to the old entrance drive to Castle Mains. Access to the castle itself is from the south-east side by a wooden bridge built across the ditch on the site of an earlier drawbridge.

To the west of the castle is the sunken Bowling Green. It is some 80-90 yards square and is surrounded by lawns on which yew trees of various ages stand. In 1985, Alan Mitchell measured ten specimen yew trees and specimens of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), beech (Fagus sylavtica) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus). Some of these had been planted this century whilst others were earlier. According to 19th century accounts and, in particular, a sketch by J.P. Neale, a continuous hedge once enclosed the Bowling Green. It has now gone. West of the Bowling Green, the footpath returns north and rejoins the lawn through a gap in the high hedge.

References

Maps, Plans and Archives

  • No information available.

Sources

Printed Sources

  • JHCG, Nov 14th, 21st & 28th 1865
  • J.S. Richardson & C.J. Tabraham,Dirleton Castle, HMSO, 1982
  • Edminston & Douglas, Antiquities of Scotland, 1845-52
  • HHC & G
  • C. McWilliam, Lothian, 1978
  • Historical Monuments (Scotland) Commission, Inventory of Monuments in East Lothian
  • JH & CG, 1865
  • A. Mitchell, Tree Survey 1985
  • Listings
  • NMRS, Photographs

Internet Sources

  • No information available.

Notes of Abbreviations used in References

No information available.

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