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1 ST ANDREWS SQUARE, ST ANDREWS PARISH CHURCH (CHURCH OF SCOTLAND) (Ref:32830)

This building is in the Glasgow, City Of Council and the Glasgow Burgh. It is a category A building and was listed on 06/07/1966.

Group Items: N/A, Group Cat: N/A, Map Ref: NS 5969 6470.

Description

Alan Dreghorn, architect, 1739-1756. The design for this important and striking church is based largely upon James Gibb's London masterpiece of St Martin-in-the-Fields (1722), and it heralds a new style for large scale classical church design in Scotland. The interior has London precedents in the plasterwork of James Clayton and the richness of its' fittings are of exceptional quality. Rectangular galleried church, 5 x 7 bays strictly symmetrical with 5-stage steeple, polished ashlar, stonecleaned. Bays marked by giant Corinthian pilasters and angle pilasters. All openings in Gibbsian rusticated surrounds with keystones and bracketted cills, those to ground depressed-arched, those to 1st round-arched. W elevation has steps to giant unfluted Corinthian hexastyle portico 1-bay deep, outer and centre bays to ground have round arched doorways with semi-circular fanlights and double-leaf panelled doors. Inner bays to ground and 1st have niches. Otherwise sash and case windows with small-pane glazing. Dentilled pediment with cartouche in tympanum. E elevation with Venetian window to centre bay, square headed doorways to outer bays with triangular pediments. Flanks 7-bay regularly detailed as above. Polished band course over ground, dentilled cornice. Balustraded parapet with die pedestals supporting urn finials, similar finials to gable apexes. STEEPLE square section to lower 2 stages, oculi to lowest stage, 2nd stage rusticated quoins round-arched windows to each face. Cornice with angle urn finials over 2nd, clockfaces to 3rd. Above this rises octagonal colonnaded drum with dome surmounted by pinnacle with ball finial. INTERIOR: exceptionally lavish 18th century interior, largely unaltered in its finest features of plasterwork and woodwork, however, alterations to the interior were carried out in 1874 by John Carrick, and in 1921 by Peter MacGregor Chalmers. 5-bay interior galleried to 3 sides with giant fluted Corinthian Columns supporting galleries as they rise to support barrel vaulted roof. To W gallery supported by smaller fluted Ionic columns, all with gilded capitals, to E shallow chancel (formerly site of organ). The plasterwork, by Thomas Clayton, and the timberwork are of the highest quality as is the stained glass, mainly by Stephen Adam. The pews are laid out with aisles below the galleries, they are of pine and date from 1874 designed by John Carrick. The gallery fronts are original, carved mahogony in swagged and diapered panels. The fine mahogony octagonal pulpit rises from an elaborately carved baluster shaft also supported by a Corinthian pillar which terminates in a gilded crown. The rococco plasterwork of the vaulted ceiling is the work of Thomas Clayton begun 1753, as presumably is the elaborate gilded plaster surround to the clock in the W wall. The stained glass replaced original clear glazed sash and case windows, it all dates from circa 1874 and is signed by Stephen Adam. The Robert Anderson memorial window to the N gallery is particularly good and Pre- Raphaelite in design. In the chancel are now housed 9 fine mid 18th-century chairs, originally sited in the W gallery as seating for the Provost and magistrates. Flanking the chancel the Willis organ (1874) is now housed in the upper N chamber. Organ pies to rear of chancel. The walls throughout are stencilled and gilded, repainted in 1920's but to a much earlier design.

Notes

St Andrew's became the centrepiece to a symmetrical square of 3-storey terraced houses laid out in 1760's, (now mostly demolished or sadly altered) and set the pattern for later building layout in Glasgow. It is possibly the most important and impressive 18th-century church in Scotland. The architect, Allan Dreghorn (19-6-1764) was a wealthy timber and lead merchant and a prominent number of Glasgow's ruling elite, he held several municipal posts (Treasurer and Bailiff). His skill as an architect is amply attested by St Andrew's Parish Church, his main surviving work. It is presumed that his own workshops provided the carved timberwork for the church.

References

Information from D M Walker. Gomme and Walker 1987, p.58-60. Doak (ed) 10. Information by courtesy of the Buildings of Scotland Research Unit. H M Colvin p.274.

© Crown copyright, Historic Scotland. All rights reserved. Mapping information derived from Ordnance Survey digital mapping products under Licence No. 100017509 2012 . Data extracted from Scottish Ministers' Statutory List on . Listing applies equally to the whole building or structure at the address set out in bold at the top of the list entry. This includes both the exterior and the interior, whether or not they are mentioned in the 'Information Supplementary to the Statutory List'. Listed building consent is required for all internal and external works affecting the character of the building. The local planning authority is responsible for determining where listed building consent will be required and can also advise on issues of extent or "curtilage" of the listing, which may cover items remote from the main subject of the listing such as boundary walls, gates, gatepiers, ancillary buildings etc. or interior fixtures. All category C(S) listings were revised to category C on 3rd September 2012. This was a non-statutory change. All enquiries relating to proposed works to a listed building or its setting should be addressed to the local planning authority in the first instance. All other enquiries should be addressed to: Listing & Designed Landscapes Team, Historic Scotland, Room G.51, Longmore House, Salisbury Place, EDINBURGH, EH9 1SH. Tel: +44 (0)131 668 8701 / 8705. Fax: +44 (0)131 668 8765. e-mail: hs.listing@scotland.gsi.gov.uk. Web: http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/historicandlistedbuildings.

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Buildings are assigned to one of three categories according to their relative importance. All listed buildings receive equal legal protection, and protection applies equally to the interior and exterior of all listed buildings regardless of category.

ACategory A

Buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic, or fine little-altered examples of some particular period, style or building type. (Approximately 8% of the total).

BCategory B

Buildings of regional or more than local importance, or major examples of some particular period, style or building type which may have been altered. (Approximately 51% of the total).

C(S)Category C(S)

Buildings of local importance, lesser examples of any period, style, or building type, as originally constructed or moderately altered; and simple traditional buildings which group well with others in categories A and B. (Approximately 41% of the total).